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TUTORIAL: How to build a To-do list Æpp - Part 2

Tutorial Overview

This tutorial will teach you how to develop the communication process between the client side and the ToDoManager smart contract. We will setup the basic infrastructure in order to interact with the smart contract from the frontend.


  • Before we go any further, please make sure you have followed the first part of How to build a To-do list Æpp.
  • Installed yarn package manager (installation)


I have published the simple frontend project in Github. We will start with cloning the github repository and I will explain the most important segments of the To-do list Æpp.

To-do list Æpp content

The tutorial is created to showcase the aeternity SDK implementation for both Base/Wallet Aepp and simple To-do list Æpp "depending" on a base (Wallet/Identity) Aepp. The To-do list Æpp consists of two parts: - Wallet/Identity Base Aepp; - To-do list Æpp dependent on a wallet/identity aepp;

Getting started

Clone the Github repository and install the required dependencies with the following sequence of commands:

git clone
cd to-do-list-aepp/identity
yarn install

The Base/Wallet Aepp is started via:

yarn run start:dev

The Aepp runs at http://localhost:9000.

Repeat the above steps for the aepp-origin.

cd to-do-list-aepp/aepp-origin
yarn install

The To-do list Æpp is started via:

yarn run start:dev

It runs at http://localhost:9001.

Base-aepp and Wallet/Identity Aepp


The most appropriate way to provide identity is the integration between the base-aepp and your Æpp. We will release an integration functionality to the base-aepp soon. The next steps describe how to integrate your Æpp with the test base-aepp: - go to the following link - ; - simulate iPhone X mobile device with Device Mode in Chrome DevTools and refresh the page; - use the Recover button if you have an account, otherwise create a new account; - after successful login, go to Browser menu and select Add an aepp; - you have to provide your aepp url and add the aepp;

The completed integration should look similar to this:

base-aepp integration

Additional notes: The test base-aepp is running over HTTPS. We have to expose our local web server to the internet over HTTPS too. We can achieve this behavior with ngrok tool. The following command exposes the identity app:

ngrok http --host-header=rewrite 9000

The expected output is:

Session Status                online                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
Session Expires               7 hours, 34 minutes                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
Version                       2.2.8                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
Region                        United States (us)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
Web Interface                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
Forwarding           -> localhost:9000                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
Forwarding           -> localhost:9000                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
Connections                   ttl     opn     rt1     rt5     p50     p90                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                              7       0       0.00    0.00    5.38    15.23

Our aepp url over HTTPS in this case is -

We have to run the same command for the aepp-origin:

ngrok http --host-header=rewrite 9001

Forwarding           -> localhost:9001 


Finally, change the aeppUrl configuration property placed in ~/to-do-list-aepp/identity/src/settings.js: aeppUrl: '//' => aeppUrl: ''

Wallet/Identity Aepp

The alternative identity provider is the custom identity aepp. We will use it just for simplicity and showing the app development process. The Wallet/Identity Aepp that expects our Aepp to be loaded into an iFrame contained into this base aepp. The essential part of the app is instantiation of the wallet. The implementation is shown here:

        accounts: [MemoryAccount({ keypair: { secretKey: this.priv, publicKey: } })],
        onTx: this.confirmDialog,
        onChain: this.confirmDialog,
        onAccount: this.confirmDialog,
        onContract: this.confirmDialog,
        networkId: settingData.networkId
      }).then(ae => {
        this.client = ae;
        console.log('status', this.client.api.getTopBlock())
        console.log('version', this.client.api.getStatus())
        this.$refs.aepp.src = this.aeppUrl

        ae.height().then(height => {
          console.log('height', height)
          this.height = height

        ae.balance( => {
          console.log('balance', balance)
          this.balance = balance
        }).catch(e => {
          this.balance = 0

We have attached the confirmation dialog to the following events:

        onTx: this.confirmDialog,
        onChain: this.confirmDialog,
        onAccount: this.confirmDialog,
        onContract: this.confirmDialog,

When embedded Aepp triggers some of the above events, the Wallet/Identity Aepp should to approve the executed action.

The configuration settings are placed in ~/to-do-list-aepp/identity/src/settings.js. For example:

export default {
  pub: 'ak_2EdPu7gJTMZSdFntHK5864CnsRykW1GUwLGC2KeC8tjNnFBjBx',
  priv: '195675e7ef31c689f92eb86fc67e31124b3b124889906607f63ee9d323834039a2a39512ab47c05b764883c04466533e0661007061a4787dc34e95de96b7b8e7',
  aeppUrl: '//',
  host: '',
  networkId: 'ae_uat'

The settings.js file contains the information for: - the public key; - the private key; - the link to the embedded Aepp; - the network we want to connect to; - the networkId of the selected network;

We want to test our To-do list Æpp on the testnet. The host property should be and the networkId is ae_uat. As you can see the aeppUrl property points to the To-do list Æpp url - // This property is used for the embedding of the To-do list Æpp inside Base/Wallet Aepp:

<iframe v-show="aeppUrl" ref="aepp" class="w-full h-screen border border-black border-dashed bg-grey-light mx-auto mt-4 shadow" src="about:blank" frameborder="1"></iframe>

To-do list Æpp

Here is the structure of the src directory for the aepp-origin project:

├── App.vue
├── components
│   └── Home.vue
├── index.js
├── main.css
├── router.js
├── settings.js
└── store.js

In this tutorial we will focus on the Home.vue and settings.js files. These two files contain the essence of our project. Тhe other files are specific to the configuration of the frontend framework you have chosen - in our case - Vue.js.

This tutorial will not deal with creation of the ui components and styling them

Мost of the code is crammed into the Home.vue file. That is so, as for the purpose of this tutorial, good separation is not essential. Please do follow the VUE best practices once you start developing outside of this tutorial.

Configuration file

The settings.js file contains the information for the deployed contract address. For instance:

export default {
  deployedContractAddress: 'ct_2XA3aXMZvH46CG5Ld387Z7Ac1QfTRQKpKNcgVaYVYDm3EKowNP',

In the previous tutorial we have deployed the ToDoManager.aes contract to the testnet, we will use the deployed contract address as a deployedContractAddress property.


The application flow starts with the authentication step. The code placed in the created lifecycle hook waits for the 'parent' identity provider Aepp to provide the connected client.

    created() {
      Aepp().then(ae => {
        this.client = ae
          .then(address => {
   = address
          .catch(e => {
   = `Rejected: ${e}`

Calling a contract function

In order to interact with the contract functions, we will use two functions: - callContract - calling a contract function that changes the state of the contract (has stateful modifier); - callStatic - calling a contract function that just read from the contract, without changing the state;

callContract(func, args, options) {
    console.log(`calling a function on a deployed contract with func: ${func}, args: ${args} and options:`, options)
    return this.client.contractCall(this.contractAddress, 'sophia-address', this.contractAddress, func, { args, options })
callStatic(func, args) {
    console.log(`calling static func ${func} with args ${args}`)
    return this.client.contractCallStatic(this.contractAddress, 'sophia-address', func, { args })

The connected client allows us to call contractCall and contractCallStatic. Calling a stateful function requires passing a deployed contract address, sophia-address constant, deployed contract address again, function name and function arguments. Invoking a static function requires a contract address, sophia-address constant, function name and arguments.

onCallDataAndFunctionAsync and onCallStatic functions wrap the above functions, process their responses and visualize the useful information about their execution in the browser.

Get all tasks

The first step after successful authentication is to take all the tasks in the contract, if any. Тhis is achieved by calling three static functions. The first one will give us the total number of tasks created in the contract state - get_task_count. We will iterate them with a for loop and for every task will call - get_task_by_index which returns the task name and task_is_completed which checks the task status. Finally we will store the results in the todos array and visualize it in the frontend template.

  async getContractTasks() {
    const taskCount = await this.onCallStatic('get_task_count', '()', 'int')
    let taskName
    let taskCompleted

    for (let i = 0; i < taskCount; i++) {
      taskName = await this.onCallStatic('get_task_by_index', `(${i})`, 'string')
      taskCompleted = await this.onCallStatic('task_is_completed', `(${i})`, 'bool')
      const task = {
        title: taskName,
        done: !!taskCompleted

Create a task

Creating a task is done by calling the add_to_do function of our ToDoManager contract. Here we will use the call to a stateful function:

  async createTask () {
    if (this.createTaskInput) {
      const taskName = await this.onCallDataAndFunctionAsync('add_to_do', `("${this.createTaskInput}")`, 'string')
      const task = {
        title: taskName.value,
        done: false

Mark a task as completed

Completing a task is done by calling the complete_task function. We will use the above approach:

  async completeTask (taskIndex) {
    const completed = await this.onCallDataAndFunctionAsync('complete_task', `(${taskIndex})`, 'bool')
    this.todos[taskIndex].done = true


Let’s briefly recap what we did during this tutorial series. In the first part we created a basic ToDoManager.aes contract that can: - represent a task; - create new task; - read a specific task; - check a task status; - get total tasks count; - get task by index;

We wrote basic unit tests for the contract. Compile it with testnet network selected and deploy the contract to the testnet. The deployed contract address and contract bytecode will be used in the next tutorial. The second part shows us how to communicate with the previously deployed contract. The included features are: - connecting the account with testnet; - getting the account's balance; - getting all the task and visualize them in the browser; - creating a task by typing name in a input field and click a button; - completing a task by a button click;

You can now create a own awesome Æpp.

The æternity team will keep this tutorial updated. If you encounter any problems please contract us through the æternity dev Forum category.